Discuss the view that tolerance is essential
for peace and harmony in any community or country
The progress of any community or country depends largely on the conduct of the people who reside in it. Discontent, jealousies, prejudices, and intolerance among a few of the people can cause great damage to the whole community or country.
Gregarious by nature, men hate to live in isolation. The urge for association, therefore, enables men to tolerate the views and habits of others, to great extent. Most men have come to realise that the cohesion of society cannot be secured without the exercise of tolerance on the part of its members.
A community or country is composed of various types of people, whose psychological social an temperamental attitudes and needs are not the same. In a great number of cases, there are fundamental differences even in race, language and religion among the people. This is the result of the economic and social necessities of the modern age, which have compelled people to leave their original homes and live among people of foreign descent. These diversities in a community or country necessitate the maintenance of a tolerant attitude on the part of the people towards one another. They have to respect the cultural and social habits and beliefs of one another and refrain themselves from doing, or saying things which might offend the susceptibilities of some people. The racial and religious clashes that have occurred in various parts of the world indicate the damage that the expression of hatred and prejudice can cause in a country. Even differences in the colour of the skin can cause trouble and violence in a community, and when passions are aroused, men lose their reason and sense of proportion and indulge in the most barbaric acts. Innocent lives become the victims of insensate cruelty.
That tolerance is essential for peace and harmony in a country could be illustrated by reference to the people in Malaysia, a country in which people of various races reside. Despite cultural, racial and religious differences among themselves, the people here have lived for generations in peace and harmony. They have also helped one another in various ways at various times. It must be admitted, however, there have been a few incidents from time to time caused by communal differences in certain localities, yet they can hardly be attributed to the general uprising of the races against one another. In fact, the goodwill that prevails among the different races of people here has contributed to the development of a new nation, which has become the envy of many countries. The racial unity among the people is the main factor that has contributed to the progress of the country in all spheres of activity.
Another country that deserves mention is the United States of America. The people of this country too are made up of a diversity of races and cultures. Yet, by tolerance, co-operation and goodwill among the people as a whole, it has become the richest country in the world. All this proves what could be achieved by the people of a community or country who exercise tolerance among themselves.
- tolerance (n): sự khoan dung, lòng khoan dung, sự tha thứ
- conduct (n): hạnh kiểm, tư cách đạo đức
- reside (v): có nhà của mình ở một nơi nhất định, cư trú
- prejudice (n): định kiến, thành kiến
- gregarious (adj): sống thành tập thể
- psychological (adj): thuộc tâm lý
- temperamental (adj): thất thường, hay thay đổi không bình tĩnh
- diversity (n): tính đa dạng
- necessitate (v): đỏi hỏi cần phải có
- refrain (v): kiềm chế làm việc gì, cố nhịn, cố nín
- susceptibility (n): tính nhạy cảm, dễ xúc cảm, tự ái
- clash (n): sự xung đột, sự va chạm
- hatred (n): lòng căm thù, căm hờn, căm ghét
- proportion (n): sự cân xứng, sự cân đối
- indulge (v): ham mê, theo đuổi
- barbaric (adj): dã man, man rợ
- insensate (adi): không cảm xúc, nhẫn tâm, điên rồ
- despite (prep): bất chấp, mặc dù
- communal (adj) (thuộc) các nhóm chủng tộc và tôn giáo đối lập ở 1 vùng
- attribute (v) : cho là do, quy cho
- uprising (n) cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa
- contribute (n) : đóng góp, góp phần
- envy (n) : sự thèm muốn, sự ghen tị, sự đố kỵ
- sphere (n) : lĩnh vực, phạm vi ảnh hưởng
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having
too many university graduates in your country
University education confers many benefits on the individual. It develops his intellect and broadens his outlook on life, and enables him to discriminate between the good and the bad. Thus, in the past, only those who sought to acquire these benefits proceeded to the various universities in the world. Today, however, men are usually driven to the universities by economic necessity. Few of them seek the true benefits of education, for the growing competition for positions in the various professions has made it difficult to secure proper employment without some university degrees. As a consequence, there are a large number of university graduates today in almost every country.
The advantages of having too many university graduates in a country, however, are many. In my country, for example, the presence of a large number of graduates would enable the government of my country lo find sufficient men to assume responsible positions in the various administrative departments. It would also raise the status of the country in the eyes of the world, as one with a high literacy rate. The efficiency of the administrative organs of the state would also be increased, and in time of national crises, the government could draw on the intellectual resources of the people. Even the younger generation of men would benefit from the contacts with university graduates. They would draw inspiration from the work of the graduates and themselves develop, consciously or unconsciously, some of the mental abilities of the graduates. In other words, the presence of a large number of university graduates would create an atmosphere conducive to the mental development of the younger people in the country.
The various private firms and industries too would benefit from the presence of large number of university graduates in my country. It would facilitate the selection of suitable men for positions of responsibility in the firms and industries. This would contribute substantially to the progress and productivity of the business concerns. There would, however, also be certain disadvantages in having too many university graduates in my country. The worst of them would be that people without university qualifications would find themselves in a precarious position. Good positions in the various professions would be closed to them. Thus, they would have to be content with humble positions and meagre incomes, Without any prospects of promotion in their respective places of work. Besides, the general drop in salary scales owing to the competition among graduates for position, would further add to the misery of those without university training, for employers would always look for university graduates, even for low positions.
Another disadvantage would be that those without university degrees would be regarded as ignorant and of no consequence. They would receive little respect, unless they were wealthy. Though the university graduates may not deliberately adopt such an attitude towards them, yet they would always remain sensitive to any remarks upon their abilities. Such a situation would produce a group of disgruntle men, and there would be much unemployment among those without university education, thus giving rise to many problems in the country.
- confer (v): trao hoặc tặng
- intellect (n): khả năng hiểu biết, trí tuệ, trí năng
- discriminate (v): phân biệt
- consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
- sufficient (adj) : đủ
- assume (v) : nắm lấy, chiếm lấy
- literacy (n) : sự biết viết, biết đọc
- efficiency (adj): hiệu quả, năng lực, khả năng
- conducive (adj): có ích, có lợi
- facilitate (v) : làm cho dễ dàng, làm cho thuận tiện
- substantially (adv): về thực chất, căn bản
- precarious (adj) : tạm thời, nhất thời, không ổn định
- humble (adj) : thấp kém, hèn mọn
- meagre (adj) : nghèo nàn, xoàng, đạm bạc
- scale (n) : quy mô, phạm vi
- owing to (prep): do vì, bởi vì
- deliberately (adv): một cách tính toán, có chủ tâm
- adopt (v): chấp nhận, thông qua
- disgruntled (adj): bực tức
War and peace
Since the time men learned to live in communities, in the remote past, wars have been fought at regular intervals in various parts of the world. In fact, the history of the human race is mainly a record of the battles and wars fought in the past between communities and nations.
Wars are caused mainly by human greed and ambition. In the early days of men’s existence, many communities lived a very hard life, owing perhaps to the lack of geographical advantages or intellectual ability. As a result, the prosperity of other communities aroused their greed and envy, and wars between communities became inevitable. One side fought to conquer the prosperous communities in order to gain control of the means of prosperity, and the other side fought to defend its independence and way of life. With the passage of time, the communities developed into nations, and wars were fought on a bigger scale; but the basic causes of war remained the same. It was only occasionally that battles were fought with other aims such as the capture of a woman to satisfy the sexual of a conqueror or ruler.
However, success in wars stirred the ambition of many nations. Wars were then fought for domination and extension of power. Several small nations soon came under the dominion of a powerful country, which then developed into an Empire. The Roman Empire, for example, was created mainly by conquest. Even the personal ambitions of some individuals have been the cause of wars at times. The ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler for world conquest caused many battles, in which millions of people, young and old, gave their lives.
The devastation caused by wars, however, has always aroused the conscience of several nations, and attempts have been made by such nations to prevent wars in the future. Their leaders have met at various times, in the course of history, to discuss peace and to find a way of removing the causes of war. It is this urge that led to the creation of the United Nations, after the failure of the League of Nations, which today is doing its utmost to maintain peace between nations.
But the desire peace has instead led to further wars, for peace often demands the destruction of the ambitions of those who begin wars. The wars begun by Napoleon and Hitler could be ended only by fighting further wars to destroy these men, who have been responsible for the greatest sufferings in the history of the world. Human ambition, however, is indifferent to the lessons of history. In times of wars, men seek peace; but when there is peace, there are attempts to begin wars. Once a war is begun, however, those responsible for it are crushed in the end. Yet ambitious countries and individuals are still trying to extend their power. but they are being opposed by those who love peace. Thus, wars will continue to exist, while at the same time attempts will be made to attain peace in the world.
- at regular intervals (n): đều đặn
- greed (n): tính tham lam
- prosperity (n): sự thịnh vượng
4 . conquer (v): chinh phục, xâm chiếm
- defend (v): bảo vệ
- lust (n): sự thèm khát, lòng tham
- stir (v): kích thích, khích động, xúi giục
- domination (n): sự thống trị
- dominion (n): quyền thống trị, quyền chi phối
- devastation (n): sự tàn phá, sự phá hủy
- conscience (n): lương tâm
12 . failure (n): sự thất bại, cố gắng không thành công
- League of Nations (n): Hội Quốc Liên
- destruction (n): sự phá hủy, sự tiêu diệt
1S. crush (v): tiêu diệt địch, dẹp tan, làm tiêu tan
- oppose (v): chống đối, phản đối
- attain (v): đạt được, giành được
Courage, like all human qualities, is an abstract thing; but it is this quality in man that has enabled him to advance against all natural obstacles through the centuries. Endowed with intelligence and manual skills man’s courage, even in the early days of his existence, enabled him to accept the challenges of nature. He not only lived in the midst of wild animals but also began to domesticate many of them for his own advantage. Soon, even the most ferocious and largest of animals learnt to respect his courage. They began to avoid him as far as they could.
Indeed, without courage man would never be able to advance from the primitive stage. He would never try to reach the skies or explore the depths of the oceans; but impelled by courage, he left his immediate confines to defy nature, and soon made the world more hospitable and secure for himself. It is this irrespressible energy of man, aided by his courage, that has contributed to the comfort and happiness that people everywhere enjoy today.
Courage is therefore indispensable to almost all human activities. Men need courage to face their enemies and the uncertainties of life. They need courage to operate machinery, to fly aeroplanes, to construct tall buildings. In fact, they need courage to meet all the dangers that constantly threaten them in all their pursuits. Even to accept the responsibilities of a family requires extreme courage.
Human courage and valour have been displayed most strikingly in all the battles that have been fought in the history of mankind. Men have fought against men with deadly weapons to protect themselves their countries, families and home. For the protection and comfort of their families, men have also faced other dangers. They have defied dangerous currents in rivers to bring food for their families by boats and rafts. They have also defied storm and battled the waves of the oceans to extract food from them.
Courage, however, does not assert itself always. The instinct of self- preservation usually impels men to seek safety in fight or concealment whenever there is a threat to personal security. It is in moments of desperation that courage asserts itself and enables one to meet all threats; and it is in such moments that men also discover their own physical strength, and other advantages of resistance. For instance, a man who is attacked by an animal will fiercely in an effort to avert tragedy to himself, and in the process discover his own strength and the advantages of using certain weapons to overpower his adversary.
Feelings of loyalty and devotion too have often aroused the courage of amen. A person who is devoted to his family fights tooth and nail to protect his family from destruction or extinction, whatever the consequences to himself. Similarly, a loyal servant may give his life for the protection of his master.
Thus, courage is the most important quality in man. He needs it for his own advancement and to meet all the challenges of his existence.
- obstacle (n): sự cản trở, trở ngại, chướng ngại vật
- endow (v): phú cho, ban cho
- manual (adj): thủ công
- challenge (n): sự thách thức
- ferocious(adj): dữ tợn, hung ác, dã man, tàn bạo
- hospitable (adj): mến khách, hiếu khách
- irrepressible (adj): không thể kìm nén được
- indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối không thể thiếu được
- strikingly (adv): nổi bật, đáng chú ý
- assert oneself (v): khẳng định, quả quyết
- self-preservation (n): sự thúc bách tự nhiên để sinh tồn
- desperation (n): sự tuyệt vọng
- fiercely (adv): dữ dội, mãnh liệt
- overpower (v): áp đảo, chế ngự, khuất phục
- adversary (n): kẻ địch, kẻ thù, đối phương
- devotion (n): sự tận tụy, sự thành tâm, sự hiến dâng
Do you think that literary education is preferable to scientific education today?
A literary education has always been regarded as indispensable to the development of character and a broad outlook on life. Whether such an education is preferable to a scientific education is, however, a moot question.
Before the advent of the Scientific Age most scholars pursued a literary education which conferred many benefits on them. It not only gave them an insight into the affairs of the world but also equipped them with a vocabulary that enabled them to express their views and feelings with cogency and facility. Besides, it developed their mental ability and intellectual powers, and many of the achieved distinction in public life as forcible speakers and writers or even as lawyers and political thinkers. Having discovered the benefits of such an education, ambitious men in all countries proceeded to the universities or other institutions of learning to acquire the advantages of a literary education, and this tendency is discernible even today, though a scientific education is being considered more advantageous to the needs of the present day.
The inventions of the modern age have indeed revolutionised society. Numerous goods are being produced, with rapidity unknown before in various parts of the earth with the aid of science and scientists of all countries are continuing to exert their brains to extend the realms of science. Every invention has helped to increase the leisure and convenience of men everywhere, and the demand for goods is increasing everyday. As a consequence, more and more machines are being invented to increase the production of goods within the shortest time possible.
Every mechanical invention, however, has to be operated by skilled men. The larger the machine the more complicated its operation, and any mechanical faults in it can be detected only by men with a scientific education, who are but few in number compared with those with a literary education. It is this scarcity of men with a scientific education that has led to the assumption that a scientific education today is preferable to a literary education. The large factories require men to operate machinery, dealers in motor-vehicles require men for all types of work in the industry, and there are a diversity of other industries which are looking for men with a scientific education. The demand for men with a scientific education is, therefore, great, and this serves as an incentive to young men to acquire industrial and technical skills, for the possession of such skills will not only enable them to secure remunerative occupations but also enable them to manage their own factories or workshops in the future to increase their earnings.
All this, however, does not imply that the man with a literary education is losing his importance rapidly. In truth, he is an indispensable person even today in various departments of human activity. He provides the managerial skill in an industry, contributes his literary abilities to the promotion of literacy in the country, provides ministerial and judicial services in the state, and performs a host of other functions.
Thus, it is not possible to say with finality that a certain type of education is preferable to another. It is for the individual to make the best of the type of education that he has received.
- indispensable (adj): rất cần, không thể thiếu
- moot (adj): có thể bàn 1uận
- equip (v): trang bị
- cogency (n): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
- distinction (n) sự ưu tú, sự xuất chúng, sự lỗi lạc
- forcible (adj): sinh động, có sức thuyết phục
- discernible (adj): có thể nhận thức được, có thể thấy rõ
- exert (v): đưa vào sử dụng, áp dụng
- realm (n): lĩnh vực
- complicated (adj): phức tạp, rắc rối
- scarcity (n): sự khan hiếm, sự khó tìm
- diversity (n): sự đa dạng
- incentive (n): sự khuyến khích; sự khích lệ, động viên
- remunerative (adj): được trả hậu, có lợi
- imply (v): hàm ý, ngụ ý
- ministerial (adj): thuộc bộ trưởng
- judicial (adj): thuộc hoặc bởi một toà án