Describe your last holiday
During my last school holidays. I spent a few days at my cousin’s house at Morib, a well-known sea resort. I shall never forget that visit.
On the day I arrived at Morib, my cousin told me that he would do to make my stay there a very interesting one. He said that he would first make a raft to use it in the sea. Then he would buy fishing net to catch some fish in the shallow waters near the coast. When I heard all this, I was very delighted because it was for these reasons that I had decided to visit my cousin. We then walked up to the beach which is near his house.
While we were there, sometime in the evening, the sea looked extremely beautiful. I saw the islands and hills in the distance, the birds in the air, and a few boys and girls playing on the beach. I also saw some fishermen coming out of the water with their catch. All this was indeed very interesting to look at.
On the next day, my cousin and I collected some tree trunks from the forest nearby. As my cousin’s house is close to the sea, we decided to make the raft on the beach itself. It took us almost the whole morning to make the raft. We then had our lunch and went to Banting, the nearest town, to buy fishing net. After that we returned to my cousin’s house.
In the evening we put the ran on the sea. The water was still high, but the raft floated quite well. My cousin and I sat on it and began to row it by using the oars that we had made ourselves. We felt very happy indeed and continued to row it. We remained on it for a long time, but as it was already getting dark we did not go far. We returned to the shore and tied the raft to a tree.
On the next day, we went out to catch some crabs and fish. We used the net that we had bought and caught a lot of fish. Then, we had our lunch and went out again on the ran. we continued to row it as far as we could. It was really a pleasure to be away from the shore. The sea was calm and we could row with ease. My cousin told me many interesting things about Morib. We then returned to the shore.
In this way, I spent my holidays happily at Morib, a place I shall never forget.
- sea resort (n): nơi nghỉ mát ở bờ biển
- raft (n): cái bè, cái mảng
- delighted (adj): hào hứng, hài lòng
- extremely (adv): tột cùng, cực độ, cực kì
- trunk (n): thân cày
- row (v): chèo thuyền
- oar (n): mái chèo
- remain (v): ở lại
- to get dark : (trời) tối dần
- tie (v): buộc, cột, tróí
- crab (n): con cua
- ease (n): sự dễ dàng
Journalism as a career
Almost everyone who can read and write sometimes feels the urge to write on some favourite topic. But some people love writing so much that they spend much of their time in writing something on various subjects for the sheer pleasure of writing. Such people usually become skillful writers; and if the ability to write with ease and facility was enough to achieve success in the field of journalism, many people would make journalism their career.
In countries like England and Japan, where there are hundreds of newspapers and journals, journalism is an attractive profession. It is a very good source or income to many. But in Malaysia there are so few newspapers and journals that journalism offers almost no prospect of success. Even in England and Japan, however, many people have failed to achieve any success in this field. To be successful in journalism, one must have many other qualities, besides the ability to write effectively. One of the most important qualities is the ability to judge what the average reader likes or dislikes. If one writes for a political journal, one should have a fair knowledge of what the readers of that journal expect from it. If one writes for a women’s journal, one should know almost instinctively what its readers prefer. Accordingly, the journalist should gather information from all possible sources for his articles and stories for publication. He may even have to distort or omit certain facts and information, which in his judgement may appear unpleasant to his readers. Further, if certain unpleasant facts have to be revealed to his readers, he has to employ words with such skill that his readers will take almost no offence. All these require great intellectual qualities.
Besides, to collect information, the journalist has to travel extensively and meet many people, far and near. As too much travelling involve great physical activity, the journalist has to pay sufficient attention to his health to keep himself strong. He has also to cultivate pleasing habits to meet all sorts of people. He must also he prepared to work under very unpleasant circumstances. For example, if he is working for a popular newspaper, he may have to be at the scene or a battle and risk his life to send his report to his newspaper office. All this involves great personal sacrifice.
Finally, a good journalist should have a good grasp of the constitutional rights of the citizens of his country and the policies of his government. He should also know the laws of libel and slander. Ignorance of any or these may lead him to make unfair criticisms and disclosures which may cause serious troubles in the country. Thus, success in journalism is not easy to attain, and only a few people make it their career.
- facility (n): khả năng học hoăc làm việc một cách dễ dàng
- achieve (v): đạt được, giành được
- journalism (n): nghề làm báo, viết báo
4 . judge ( v ): xét đoán, phán đoán, đánh giá
- instinctively (adv): theo bản năng, do bản năng
- distort (n): bóp méo, xuyên tạc
- sufficient (adj): đầy đủ
- circumstance (n) : hoàn cảnh, trường hợp
- constitutional (adj) : thuộc hiến pháp, theo hiến pháp
- libel (n) : lời phỉ báng, tội phỉ báng
- slander (n): sự vu khống. sự vu cáo
- disclosure (n) : sự vạch trần, sự phơi bày
Beauty in nature
Beauty is hard to define but easy to recognise. In nature beauty may be discerned in all things and places, even in the most unexpected regions of the earth. There is beauty in the infinite variety of flowers, birds, animals and plants, many of which are vividly colourful.
There is beauty in mountains, valleys and hills, and in the skies. Thus, beauty can be found in all the creations of God. Then hunter who scans the forests for his quarry is often fascinated by the beauty that he finds in objects, which conceal beautiful flowers from human sight, suddenly reveal their secrets to him when he stumbles over them. The fisherman who turns to the sea for his livelihood is fascinated by the beauty of the multitudinous creatures that swarm in the seas. Many of these creatures are found even on the shore. But the oceans often conceal the beauty that lies below their surface, and to catch a glimpse of the beauty of the world below the sea, hundreds of divers everywhere explore the bottoms of the oceans, even at the risk of losing their lives in the unknown regions of the world below.
Even the farmer and the traveller appreciate the beauty that is found in nature. The farmer finds beauty in the variety of the plants that he grows. The traveller is impressed with the beauty of distant hills and mountains, and the beauty of meadering rivers in large valleys. He is also appreciative of the beauty of the night. As he travel in the moon-light, he looks at the landscape and is lost in admiration of it.
The beauty in nature is also appreciated by others. Almost every one delights to see the rushing streams and the numerous birds and animals that may be found in every part of the earth, for these are part of the ornaments of nature. Even the tiniest of creatures has a beauty of its own. In search of this beauty in nature, men in all parts of the world are travelling great distances and spending a great deal of money, even in some cases, even their life savings. It is this appreciation of natural beauty that impels men to visit distant lands which have a beauty of their own. Men have also visited the islands that are spread throughout the world in search of the natural beauty. Many have seen visited the cold deserts in the Artics as well as the hot deserts where few plants grow, in search of the beauty that may be found in these regions, despite the lack of vegetation and animals life. The deserts are indeed the home of many beautiful plants and animals which find sufficient refuge in these pans, and many of the birds too, here are remarkable for their beauty.
But the person who is most appreciative of natural beauty is the poet who finds music and beauty even in the movement of the clouds and winds. His deep appreciation of the beauty that he finds around him impels him to give utterance to it in the most expressive language, which is itself often of imperishable beauty.
- discern (v): nhận thức, thấy rõ
- God (n): chúa trời, thượng đế
- scan (v): xem tỉ mỉ, kiểm tra cẩn thận
- quarry (n): con mồi
- conceal (v): giấu giếm, che đậy
- reveal (v): bộc lộ, biểu lộ, tiết lộ
- stumble (v): vấp, trượt chân
- multitudinous (adj): rất nhiều, vô số kể
- glimpse (n): cái nhìn thoáng qua
- meander (v): ngoằn ngoèo, quanh co, khúc khuỷu
- ornament (n): đồ trang hoàng, đồ trang trí
- impel (v): thúc ép, bắt buộc
- refuge (n): nơi trốn tránh, nơi ẩn náu, nơi trú ấn
- remarkable (adj): đáng chú ý, đáng để ý
- utterance (n): sự phát biểu, sự bày tỏ
- imperishable (adj): bất hủ, bất tử, bất diệt
Do you agree that the study of Mathematics is essential
to the progress of the human race?
Though the study of Mathematics had occupied the attention of Egyptian and Greek scholars centuries ago, yet it was only after the advent of the Industrial Revolution that the importance of the subject was fully realised by scholars and educationists everywhere. Today, Mathematics is one of the most important subjects in all the schools and universities of the world.
Before the Industrial Revolution, men lived very simple lives. Agriculture, hunting and fishing were then their main sources of livelihood. It did not occur to them that their lives could be made more comfortable if they only exercised their mental faculties a little more and organised a system of knowledge, which we now call the Science, and applied it to practical purposes. Thus, they turned to nature for sustenance, and were satisfied with what they could acquire from nature with their skills. This simple mode of existence was, however, disturbed by the inventions of a few men, sometime in the eighteenth century, which caused people everywhere to think of new ways of improving their conditions of living. The inventions revealed new sources of comfort, and power for the production of goods. Thus, the Industrial Revolution began. More and more machines were invented for the rapid production of goods, and the study of Mathematics began to receive great encouragement, for it was realised that machines function on mathematical principles.
The intensive study of Mathematics revealed its potentialities. It was soon applied not only to invent new machinery but also to explain abstruse subjects such as Physics, Logic and many others. In fact, Mathematics is now used to teach and explain almost every important subject in schools and universities. Even the construction of buildings and bridges requires a deep knowledge of Mathematics.
The study of Mathematics has also helped to increase the mental powers of men. They are not only able to think more clearly than they could before but are also able to understand and explain many of the things which they could not understand earlier.
Sometimes, however, Mathematical principles have been applied for tragic consequences. In battles and wars, bombs and cannon-balls have been released with remarkable accuracy to destroy the enemy. This fact reveals how knowledge of Mathematics could be used to hinder human progress. But such a situation develops only when men have lost their patience and their capacity for compromise and fortunately the leaders of the world today are trying their utmost to remove the causes for war.
In general, however, men have a natural impulse to live in peace and harmony with others, and almost every invention is aimed at promoting the welfare of the peoples of the world. Thus, the human race has benefited from the efforts of those who have made the fullest use of Mathematical principles for all their inventions. I therefore agree that the study of Mathematics is essential to the progress of the human race.
- the mental faculties: năng lực, trí tuệ
- sustenance (n): chất bố, sự bổ dưỡng
- encouragement (n): niềm khích lệ, niềm cổ vũ, niềm động viên
- intensive (adj): chuyên sâu, cao độ, mạnh mẽ, sâu sắc, tập trung
- potentiality (n): tiềm năng, tiềm lực
- abstruse (adj): khó hiểu, thâm thuý, sâu sắc
- consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
- cannon-ball (n): đạn trái phá
- impulse (n): sự thúc đẩy, sự thôi thúc
- welfare (n): hạnh phúc, sự thịnh vượng
What contributions can writers make to the promtion of goodwill
among the people of a country?
Since remote antiquity writers in every country have exerted a profound influence on the minds of the people. The writings or political philosophers, like Rousseau and Voltaire, have even caused revolutions and diverted the course of history. Such is the power of writers who express their ideas and views with lucidity and cogency. Most writers who dwell upon the affairs of their countries are deeply conscious of their responsibility towards their countries and compatriots. This consciousness not only impels them to avoid issues which tend to divide the people but also to express their views on delicate issues in the most temperate language. Their main aim is to promote goodwill among the people of the country, and this they try to achieve in various ways.
In a country dominated by people of the same race and language, writers can promote goodwill among its people by clarifying political and economic issues which the people understand only vaguely. If the people are divided by ideological differences or by differences of economic status, writers can exercise their influence to remove the resentment and prejudices among the people. Even those who write on social problems can emphasise the issues that tend to unite the people. They can also suggest ways and means of removing the causes of resentment and frustration that exist among the people. As the written word is more effective than the spoken word, people tend to accept the views of writers more readily than those expressed verbally by various people.
But it is in countries in which people of various races reside that writers can make the greatest contribution to the promotion of goodwill among the people. In a country like Malaya, for example, writers can concentrate on the issues that tend to unite the people. They should not be too critical of the attitudes of one race to gratify the emotions of another race. If they do so, they will incite racial discord and even violence which may affect the whole country adversely. If short speeches to a small group of people can cause riots and racial conflicts in all parts of the country, writers can do greater harm, for the written word circulates more extensively for a longer period.
This power of the written word, however, could be used by writers for the benefit of the whole nation. By giving prominence to the social aspects of life that affect the people as human beings and as individuals of a particular race, writers can help in the development of a common outlook among the people. They could also help in making the people realise the benefits in peace and harmony. A study of the history of many countries reveals how the ways and habits of its people are influenced by the pen of distinguished writers. Even the leaders of the country are often guided by the opinions of noted writers.
Indeed, in times of great discontent in a country, writers advise the people to exercise patience and moderation in expressing their grievance. There are many examples of how writers in various countries have been able to remove feelings of hatred among the people. The newspaper, for example, which is the product of the combined effort of many writers, is able to exert a restraining influence on people who are easily provoked. This is the best example of what writers could do to promote goodwill among the people of a country.
- antiquity (n): thời xưa
- divert (v) : làm đổi hướng
- lucidity (n): sự rõ ràng, minh bạch
- cogency (v): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
- dwell upon (v): chuyên chú vào
- conscious (adj): có ý thức, biết rõ
- compatriot (n): đồng bào
- delicate (adj): tinh vi, tinh tế, tế nhị
- dominate (v): chiếm ưu thế, chi phối, thống trị
- clarify (v): làm cho dễ hiểu
- vaguely (adv): mơ hồ, ngờ ngợ
- ideological (adj): thuộc hệ tư tưởng
- prejudice (n): sự thành kiến, định kiến, thiên kiến
- frustration (n): tâm trạng thất vọng, vỡ mộng
- verbally (adv): bằng lời nói
- adversely (adv): bất lợi
- circulate (v): lưu truyền, truyền bá
- discontent (n): sự bất mãn, sự bất bình
- grievance (n): lời phàn nàn, lời kêu ca, lời than phiền, nỗi bất bình
Which language do you think has made the greatest contribution
to the promotion of better understanding among the peoples of the world?
The human race is divided by a multiplicity of languages, many of which have come to play an important part in the affairs of the world. A little reflection reveals that the importance of a language is associated mainly with the ideas and knowledge it contains. The more ideas a language can convey to the peoples of the world, the more it will be used by people everywhere. Thus, the language that is used most extensively is the language that makes the greatest contribution to human progress and mutual understanding between peoples.
It cannot be denied that today the most widely used language is the English language. There are few countries in which this language is not understood or used. Even the countries which preached hatred for everything English, including the English language, during their struggle for independence from British rule such as India, found it difficult to dispense with this language after they became independent. Therefore, they not only continued to use English in all spheres of public activity but also began to encourage the use and study of the English language as means of achieving national progress and unity. These efforts on the part of the various countries of the world convey an idea of the importance of the English language.
It would be instructive, however to consider the reason for the extensive use of the English language. One of the reasons is that several countries in the world have been occupied mainly by immigrants from England such as the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. It is therefore not surprising that the people of such countries have continued to use the English language, though they have severed their political connexions with their mother country and acquired independent status, for one cannot discard one’s language easily. Another reason is that, in the course or history, a large number of countries throughout the world came directly under British rule, where English was made the main language for administrative, commercial and all other purposes.
As the leading colonial power in the world, England has indeed exerted a profound influence on the affairs of the world, though her colonial possessions are rapidly becoming independent one after the other. Concomitantly, the English language too has come to play a leading role in international communication. Thus, many people whose native language is not English have studied English and become more conversation with English than with their own languages. This is especially true with the leaders of the people to whom English is a foreign language. As a result, the English language is used by them not only in the administration of their countries but also in all their institutions of higher learning.
The most important reason for the pre-eminence of the English language, however, is that it is the source of all knowledge. The Industrial Revolution that began in England and spread to other countries revealed the English genius for invention. Even the political and social institutions of England, which were affected tremendously by the Industrial Revolution, have evoked the admiration of all countries. The knowledge, ideas, experiences and profound thoughts of the English people have made a deep impression on the minds of the people of other countries. Innumerable books have been written in the English language on all branches of study, and such is the thirst of English scholars for knowledge and their desire to communicate it, that they have even translated books of great value from other language to English for the benefit of all. Writers of other nationalities too have written a great number of books in English and made a substantial contribution to the enrichment of the English language. As a result of all these efforts, the English language has become the main avenue to the greatest storehouse or information. Therefore, people everywhere have developed a special respect for the language and they continue to learn it with avidity.
As the English language is used so extensively it is mainly in this language that the peoples of the world communicate with and understand one another. No other language has such a wide appeal or popularity. I am therefore of the opinion that it is the English language that has made the greatest contribution to the promotion of the better understanding among the peoples of the world.
- multiplicity (n): vô số
- mutual (adj): qua lại, lẫn nhau
- preach (v): chủ trương, thuyết giáo
- immigrant (n) : người nhập cư
- connexion (n) : mối quan hệ
- discard (v) : vứt bỏ, thải hồi
- administrative (adj) : (thuộc) hành chính
- commercial (adj) : (thuộc) thương mại
- concomitantly (adv) : đi đôi với, đồng thời
- pre-eminence (n) : sưu việt hơn hẳn
- evoke (v): gợi lên
- innumerable (adj) : vô số
- substantial (adj) : lớn lao, đáng kể, quan trọng
- avidity (n) : sự khát khao
- appeal (n) : sự hấp dẫn
Since his appearance on the earth, man has instinctively longed for liberty, an ideal which has inspired revolts and revolutions throughout the long history of the human race.
The yearning for liberty or freedom is not restricted to man alone. Even animals, birds and all living creatures love the freedom that God has given to them. Like men, these creatures will never submit to captivity without resistance. Neither will they cease to make tenacious efforts to escape, once they are captured.
In the early days of their existence, men were free to pursue their own affairs, within the limits of their own ability. They moved from place to place in small isolated groups and families, in search of food, which consisted of edible plants. fruits and the flesh of animals. The pursuit of the means of survival was their only occupation, and the things that restricted their freedom of movement, to some extent, were their own fears of the unknown and natural barriers such as mountains, dense forests, and rivers. These were no restraints imposed upon them by human institution and they enjoyed their liberty.
Gradually, men learned to live in communities and various institutions were established, which soon curtailed their liberty to a great extent. Rules were made for the cohesions of each community and obedience to those rules was secured by the threat of punishment. This element of compulsion imposed upon the conduct of the individuals in the community restricted the liberty of the people; but the greater security that men enjoyed in community life provided the incentive to partial sacrifices.
Soon, however, conflicts developed among the various communities. The stronger one conquered the weaker one and in the contest for power and domination, hundreds of people lost their liberty completely. The enslavement and suppression of one group of people by another provided the stimulus for numerous revolts and revolutions for liberty which have not ceased till this day.
Even in the same community. Sometimes, there were divisions. The rulers, who came to be known as kings, with the development of the communities into countries, were at variance with their subjects. To maintain their status and to assert their authority, kings developed their own theories of kingship, and many of them ruled in the most despotic manner. Defiance of the king’s authority was punished by death and imprisonment. What constituted defiance was decided arbitrarily by the king or his ministers, and thousands or people were deprived of their liberty.
Eventually, however, despotism aroused the fury of political thinkers and writers in many countries. A crusade then began against oppression and despotism, and the cry for liberty was heard everywhere. Revolutions erupted; despotic rulers were overthrown, and new rulers were compelled to rule with the consent of the people. The French Revolution of the eighteenth century is the best example of the extremity to which people were prepared to go to retain or regain their liberty, which is claimed to be the birth-right of every man.
But liberty does not mean licence. In other words, men’s liberty of action should not be excessive. The French Revolution is, unfortunately, also the best example of how men may lose their sense of proportion and justice, in their attempts to assert their liberty. In that revolution hundreds of innocent men, women, and children lost their lives at the hands of those who took full advantage of the anarchy that then prevailed in France, to assert their liberty of action. Such actions are indeed licentious .
Thus, it may be argued that liberty will remain the battle-cry of all the people, but those who have it should not use it to hurt or offend others or to deprive others of their liberty.
- liberty (n): sự tự do, quyền tự do
- revolt (n): cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa, cuộc nổi loạn
- submit (v): chịu phục tùng, quy phục, ngừng phản kháng
- tenacious (adj): kiên trì, ngoan cường, ngoan cố
- isolated (adj): biệt lập, cô đơn
- restraint (n): sự kiềm chế, sự gò bó, sự ràng buộc
- curtail (v): tước đi, lấy đi
- cohesion (n): sự dính liền, sự cố kết
- compulsion (n): sự ép buộc, sự cưỡng bức
- conquer (v): chinh phục, chế ngự
- enslavement (n): sự nô dịch hoá, tình trạng bị nô dịch
- suppression (n): sự đàn áp hoặc bị đàn áp
- stimulus (n): sự kích thích, tác nhân kích thích
- status (n): đia vị, thân phận, thân thế
- despotic (adj): chuyên chế, chuyên quyền, bạo ngược
- defiance (n): sự công khai kháng cự hoặc không tuân theo
- constitute (v): cấu thành, tạo thành
- arbitrarily (adv): chuyên quyền, độc đoán
- arouse (v): đánh thức, khuâý động, gợi
- crusade (n): chiến dịch; cuộc vận động lớn
- claim (v): khẳng định, quá quyết
- excessive (adj): quá thể, quá đáng
- anarchy (n): tình trạng vô chính phú, tình trạng hỗn loạn
- prevail (v): thắng thế, chiếm ưu thế, phổ biến khắp nơi
- licentious (adj): bừa bãi, phóng túng
- oppress (v): áp bức, đàn áp
Discuss the role of the police force in society
The police force plays a vital role in the maintenance of law and order in society. It is a source of moral strength, confidence and happiness to all individuals who seek to live a good life in society.
The ideal of a police force has been conceived centuries ago, when lawyers acts were committed everywhere; but it was only in the nineteenth century that effectual steps were taken to build up a strong police force in almost every country. Life, before the introduction of the police force, was indeed insecure. Violent acts such as murder were committed with impunity by cruel and reckless men. Even those who were weak and feared revenge by stronger men nevertheless found it safe sometimes to commit lesser crimes such as theft and robbery. Without the restraining influence of a powerful organization such as the police force, the passions of men were aroused easily, and lawlessness prevailed everywhere. Individuals grouped themselves together and terrorized whole villages and towns, and there were wars between rival groups. This state of affairs caused great sorrow and acute anxiety to whole communities and everyone lived in constant fear, uncertain even about his immediate future.
The establishment of the police force, however, has changed the state of affairs in society. The police force has enabled the law courts, which have existed since ancient times, in certain countries even before the introduction of the police force, to function more efficiently. Criminals are apprehended and punished, with the help of the police force, to deter others from committing acts injurious to innocent citizens. Most people therefore have learned to control their criminal tendencies. The alertness of the police force in the detection of crimes has not only discouraged most people from breaking the laws of society but also compelled them to exercise restrain and self-discipline. Consequently, society as a whole is more peaceful than what it was before the establishment of the police force.
As the aim of the police force is to promote the welfare of society, it is constantly engaged in creating the conditions in which people can live and pursue their own affairs without interference from thoughtless individuals. The rights of every member in society are protected by the courts through the agency of the police force, which is therefore a source of inspiration and hope to all law-abiding citizens. Any interference with the rights of one citizen by another is frowned upon by the police force.
In their efforts to promote the welfare of society the police force extends its activities even to the remotest regions of the country. If a man is lost in a dense forest or at sea by his own fault or otherwise, members of the force do their utmost to find and bring him back to his family, however unpleasant the effort may prove. Seldom do they give up their search if they are certain that the man still survives. Dedicated to the service of society, they are prepared to work under any conditions to protect a person, sometimes even at the risk of losing their own lives.
The knowledge of the activities in which the police force is engaged has increased the confidence and moral strength of people in society. Even the cripple and invalid are given every protection. Thus, people today can live in greater security and happiness than they could before. Society therefore owes a great debt of gratitude to the police force.
- vital (adj): sống còn, quan trọng
- seek (v): mưu cầu, theo đuổi
- conceive (v): hình thành 1 ý nghĩ, trong đầu có ý tưởng
- commit (v): phạm lỗi
- impunity (n): sự không bị trừng phạt
5 . rival (adj ): đối địch, cạnh tranh
- ancient (adj) : xưa, cổ
- apprehend (v) : bắt, tóm, nắm, lấy
- deter (v) : ngăn cản, ngăn chặn, làm nản lòng
- alertness (n): sự tỉnh táo, sự cảnh giác
- discourage (v) : làm nản lòng, làm chán nản
- compel (v) : bắt buộc, thúc ép
- consequently (adv) : do đó, vì vậy, bởi vậy, cho nên
- interference (n) : sự can thiệp, sự xen vào
- law-abiding : trung thành với pháp luật, tuân theo luật pháp
- frown (v) : không bằng lòng, phản đối
- prove (v): tỏ ra, chứng tỏ, chứng minh
- dedicated (adj): tận tụy, tận tâm
- gratitude (n): lòng biết ơn, sự nhớ ơn