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The Brazilian government invested billions of dollars to prepare for the 2014 World Cup. The money has been spent on infrastructure, like roads, and stadiums for World Cup events. It also has paid for security and social projects. The government says these investments will result in long-term gains for Brazil. But independent experts say effects of the spending are mixed. Urban planners say the $11 billion spent on infrastructure has created jobs for poor Brazilians. But they say this development has a price. Some people are questioning the value of Police Pacification Units, called the UPP in Portuguese. Officials have sent these special police forces to poor neighborhoods, or favelas, to drive out drug traffickers and other criminals. Chris Faffney teaches at Fluminense University in Rio de Janeiro. He says the drug traffickers just move their operations to other favelas. But he adds that the UPP have brought some order to once lawless neighborhoods. He says these forces have opened some areas to tourism or state-supported projects or businesses. The organizing body of the World Cup, FIFA, also invested in social programs. Lisa Delpy Neirotti is with Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. She says the investments have led to programs for educating young people about the environment, the disease AIDS or the importance of staying in school. But, critics note that some cities in Europe have rejected proposals to hold huge sports events to push development. They say a new model is needed if nations organizing such activities are to prevent protests like those earlier in Brazil.